Posted by: davidhayden | July 22, 2014

Not About CNC – 67 GTO for sale

This is not about CNC Programming but my career in CNC certainly made it possible.  Anyway the time has come to sell my beautiful  67 GTO -

http://www.streetsideclassics.com/showcar.php/dfw/852/1967-Pontiac-GTO

 

1967 Pontiac GTO

Posted by: davidhayden | November 25, 2012

Leaders: Avoid the Technology Trap or You Are Doomed to Fail

 Great leaders don’t need cell phones

What does it benefit someone to have all the data in the world but lose their ability to lead?

A friend emailed me recently lamenting the loss of leadership where she works. She laments:

 What’s going on these days? I sit in meetings deemed so
important that it is mandatory attendance, yet 1/2 the people
are so disengaged the spend they entire meeting texting on
their cell phones, many even bring in their laptops. But what
really pushed me over the edge was when I realized the
person I was sitting next to emailed my boss asking him when
I was going to complete his pet task for the day.

I was sitting right there, next to him . . . Unbelievable!

Julius Caesar, Alexander the Great, Washington, Jefferson, to name a few, were all great leaders and accomplished unimaginable goals and with out cell phones, email or instant messaging. As it appears now, technology is supplanting leadership. With adequate technology, does leadership even matter?

 You Can Manage Circumstances but You MUST Lead People

Yes, leadership matters and here’s why.

Sure technology allows us to monitor, manage and communicate a wide array of inputs and outputs, but is so much data always a good thing?

To lead effectively good information is essential, but more than that leaders need:

  1. critical thinking skills to filter out noise.
  2. just enough information to make effective decisions and no more.
  3. to be proactive towards important goals and not simply reactive to circumstances and personalities.
  4. to care more about the success of those they lead than their own.

In particular, points one and two are more relevant than ever. Technology has created so many inputs and competing priorities it is easy to get lost.

Leaders must have the critical thinking skills to filter out what needs to be addressed and what is merely a distraction. Turning the ship around and re-tasking employees, every time there’s an urgent email suggests the leader is clueless. It highlights the lack of clear focus. It tells employees the “most important” task they were assigned to work really wasn’t that important at all. It tells employees the manager has no plan.

 Only Having a Know Plan is NO Plan at all

Leaders need to stay informed and suffer consequences if they don’t. They are pulled into meetings at the last minute and grilled for the latest updates. So knowing is important, but it is not a plan is it?

So leaders fire up cell phones, PDAs and computers, monitor dashboards, emails and instant messages. They know down to the minute who is present, which machines are up and running, where the deliveries are and the status of shipping so they can react at a minutes notice.

But reacting isn’t leading is it? Nor is it planning to succeed. Sure there is a flurry of activity to address the latest “opportunity” but that is not productivity. The problem with the information overload is that, without sufficient goals and appropriate planning, the information simply creates chaos and ultimately organizations degrade into entropy.

It’s easy to get sucked in though. So much seemingly urgent information comes so fast that isn’t actually important but demands reaction. Everything is stopped and resources re-prioritized but at the end of the day, all the effort was for naught and truly important things fall father behind.

Information for information’s sake is a distraction. But at least managers can go into meetings armed with the latest data and able to say that something was done.

 Meetings, Meetings and more Meetings

It is not uncommon for managers to complain about not having enough time to do their job because they spend their entire day in meetings. I personally know people who have had in excess of 10 hrs of mandatory meetings scheduled for an 8 hr period.

One advantage of having immediate access to information available is leaders can instantly communicate the latest developments and priorities to their employees; even while viewing endless PowerPoint presentations of questionable data presented with the utmost authority.

Meetings are essential for getting people together to solve problems and make plans. Show-and-tell meetings, however, seem to only serve the need to autopsy something that went wrong or right but is unlikely to repeat. Or worse, to show “look what we have done about this.”

With the available technology it is ironic that precious leadership time is consumed attending information only meetings. As a result managers attempt to manage by uninspiring text messages and emails.

The better solution is for managers become leaders again and work with employees to achieve great things. Then use the technology for it’s intended purpose . . . exchanging pertinent information. The more managers engage in business function the better their opportunity to lead and improve their organizations.

Stop Texting and Start Leading

There was a great fear/dream when computers first came out that paper would go away. But instead we use more paper than ever. There was a similar dream that all this wonderful technology would put information at people’s fingertips and there could be far fewer meetings. To this day the dream that technology will free managers up to better lead their employees is still alive.

Unfortunately the opposite appears to be the case. Managers, being more comfortable sorting through mountains of data, have moved away from leading people. Rather than freeing up managers, information overload has encumbered them.

Instead of using technology to avoid meetings, technology is being used to push faceless requests to employees while managers attend MORE meetings. With too much information and not enough critical thinking, a manager’s commitment to important decisions extends only to the next urgent message.

People (aka employees) respond to leadership. Businesses thrive because of leadership. My advice to managers is to:

  1. Cancel all meetings that do not solve problems or brainstorm ideas.
  2. Only invite essential people to meetings, even if it hurts someone’s feelings to be left out.
  3. Use technology instead of meetings to exchange general information.
  4. Lead people through direct interaction.
  5. Carbon copy emails sparingly so when people do get an email from you they will pay attention to it.
  6. If you are required to attend a meeting, put the devices away and pay attention. If there is no tangible benefit to attending, skip the meeting and ask to be removed from the invitee list.

 In short put away the cell phone and answer the call to leadership.

Posted by: davidhayden | November 4, 2012

HaydenPub Announcement

HaydenPub open up new website for Pontiac GTO enthusiasts!

CNC machinists, programmers and hobbyists are often automobile enthusiasts and I am no exception.  CNC machining and then programming has opened many doors for me and put me in a position where my dream of owning a muscle car has come to fruition.

I originally set out looking for an early 60’s Chevrolet Impala SS but got side tracked along the way by a beautiful gold 1967 GTO.   But there was a problem . . . specifically finding used parts.

Finding aftermarket parts for the car was fairly easy at places like Year One, Ames Performance, and other sites.  But used parts were a problem because of too much unorganized data.

Craigs’s list and Ebay have lots of listings but weeding through them was tedious and time-consuming.  After working long days at Bell Helicopter, spending time with my family and keeping up with the sales of 7 Easy Steps to CNC Programming, I found myself with little time to work on the GTO let alone weed through pages of unorganized advertising.

But as CNC programmers know, for most problems there is a solution.  In my case, I created a new classified advertising website dedicated exclusively to Pontiac GTOs.  The new website is Pontiac-GTO-Parts.com

If you are interested in Pontiac GTOs drop by, sign up and post an ad.  It’s free and right now needs some ads.  I do have an ulterior motive as you probably guessed.

My motive is simple.  When more people post ads, it will be easier for me to find what I want and I will be able to sell my parts to people who need/want them . . . like the radiator and floor mats I currently have posted.

If you work with CNC equipment, chances you are making something you would like to sell or you would like to offer your CNC services as a contractor or employee.  Ultimately, you need a way to sell your product or service.

I highly recommend a book by Mark Joyner titled “The Irresistible Offer: How to Sell Your Product or Service in 3 Seconds or Less.”  This book was an easy read and at first blush, I thought well that’s an interesting idea.  In retrospect, the book really started me thinking.  The short version is as follows:

The Core imperative in business: 

Make an offer.  Quid Pro Quo.  I will give you X in exchange for Y.  Do this effectively and you can quickly weed out the players from the disinterested time wasters.

Addressing the unspoken dialog:  

According to the author, when a person picks up a marketing piece, meets a new person or is on the receiving end of a sales call, there are 4 questions in their mind.

  1. What are you trying to sell me?
  2. How much?
  3. Why should I believe you?
  4. What’s in it for me?

We basically have a person’s attention for 3 seconds and must address these questions or we will lose them.  The first three questions address the buyer’s logic, the last question is emotional.

The Irresistible Offer: 

“The Irresistible Offer is an identity-building offer central to a product, service or company where the believable return on investment is communicated so clearly and efficiently that it’s immediately apparent you’d have to be a fool to pass it up.” – Mark Joyner

Mark Joyner’s 3 favorite Irresistible Offers:

  • Domino’s – “30 minutes or less . . . or it’s free.”
  • Federal Express – “When it absolutely, positively has to be there overnight.”
  • Columbia House – “10 CDs for 1 Cent.”

All of these meet the criteria of an identity-building offer central to a product, service or company where the believable return on investment is communicated so clearly and efficiently that it’s immediately apparent you’d have to be a fool to pass it up.

There are three basic elements to the Irresistible Offer:

  1. High Return on Investment (ROI)
  2. A Touchstone
  3. Believability

If you have all 3, you have an outstanding offer.  What you lack in one area must be made up in the other areas.  For example, Domino’s pizza was not perceived as particularly good in the early days.  So, their offer was low ROI but the touchstone, immediate pizza when you are hungry, was very compelling.

Let’s return to the Core Imperative.  Make an offer.  Without an offer, there is no business, simple as that.   Customers need to perceive an ROI or there is no point.  The ROI should be clear and real.    I can get 10 CDs for 1-Cent.  This implies high ROI even though the perspective customer knows they will have to buy more at a higher price . . . but in total they get cheap CDs. 

The Touchstone is a brief statement of what you do, what’s in it for your customer, and what makes it believable.   For example, Domino’s was selling fast pizza, you get it in 30 minutes or less because you are hungry.  You can believe us because, if it’s late, you get it for free.  Look at the touchstone breakdown for these offers.

Columbia House breakdown by 4 imperative questions:

  1. What is Columbia House selling? –  Cheap Compact Discs
  2. How much will it cost? – 1 Penny
  3. What’s in it for you? – cheap music, bragging rights
  4. Why should you trust Columbia House? – Not much to lose.  It’s low risk but customers are still skeptical.

Dominos breakdown by 4 imperative questions:

  1. What is Domino’s selling? –  Fast Pizza
  2. How much will it cost? – Not stated
  3. What’s in it for you? – Immediate gratification, Pizza now when you are hungry.
  4. Why should you trust Dominos? – If they don’t deliver on their promise, it’s free – -strong risk reversal.

Federal Express breakdown by 4 imperative questions:

  1. What is Federal Express selling? – Overnight Delivery
  2. How much will it cost? – Not stated – We believe this is so valuable; you may not care about price.
  3. What’s in it for you? – Delivery is made overnight, your project can continue w/o delay.  You have covered your bases.
  4. Why should you trust Federal Express? – Trust worthiness is implied in the name Federal Express.

Let’s put this in context of what Mark describes as the Great Formula.

  1. An irresistible offer
  2. A thirsty market
  3.  A second glass.

In other words, identify your market and know who is thirsty for what you are offering, make them an irresistible offer and after they have made their purchase, reel them in for repeat business, sell them a second glass of water.  If the ROI is real as well as perceived, the second glass is an easy sell.

Believability can be one or a combination of:

  1. Proof – this can be social proof (we have satisfied customers), Technical proof (independent data validates our offer), Factual proof (presentation of facts that validate our offer)
  2. Credibility – are we credible, do we have the substance to make the offer? 
  3. Endorsements – high profile or respected people they know that would attest to our solution.
  4. High profile customers – who are the big dogs they respect that we do business with?
  5. Qualifications – memberships,  degrees, member organizations.
  6. Awards and recognition – customers like to associate with winners.
  7. Logic – rock solid logic to support an irresistible offer.

Regardless of whether or not your are trying to get a date or sell products and services finding an honest irresistible offer is . . .well . . . imperative.  

Here is an offer to remember:  Learn the fundamentals of CNC Programming, or BobCAD/CAM v19-v21 in 7 days for just 7 bucks.  Visit CNC M Codes

Posted by: davidhayden | March 14, 2012

Does the high cost of labor sink factories?

This is a re-post of an article I posted Apr 2010 and I was reminded that it is more relevant today than ever before after reading Dean Barber’s post.   You may also want to review a similar article I recently had published in Manufacturing Engineering Magazine

Does the high cost of labor sink factories?

There has been much discussion about the high cost of labor in the United States. And, having worked in a number of union shops I can attest to the seemingly high wages. I have personally benefited from the union wages because as a result of union wage, as managers our wages increased proportionately.

It is not just the wages

Increasing wages without proportional increases in production are a problem. But, having said that, new equipment, methods and advances in manufacturing engineering have dramatically increased the productivity per employee.

There is a much bigger problem. As high as those wages seem to be, no one wants to go into the trades these days.

In every shop I have worked for the last 20 years the problem has been the same. They can’t hire skilled machinist or craftsmen.

For example more than one shop I have worked at was anticipating losing 55%-65% of their skilled workforce to retirement in the next few years. Guess how many people are applying for those jobs? Maybe 10%-15% of what they need and most are not skilled.

I had more than one argument with the shop floor guys about the extent to which we were outsourcing work. My point always was and is today. Get the union leadership together with management and find a way to entice and develop a workforce.

It does little good to keep jobs in the company if there is no one to fill them.

How did things go so wrong?

Sometime ago we hit a perfect storm.

  • Blue color work became unglamorous
  • Environmentalism demonized the manufacture of anything
  • The emphasis on a college implied blue collar workers were a subclass of uneducated stupid people

At the end of the day, kids were discouraged from entering the trades. Somehow it is more glamorous to be waiter or hair dresser than an assembler, machinist or planner. Suddenly every child has a computer and aspirations of making their fortune sitting in their swimming trunks doing internet marketing.

So, India, China, Korea, Mexico and other less developed countries have the labor pool. They are far more concerned with feeding their huge populations that fussing with environmental or OSHA regulations. Is it any wonder the manufacturing work is going offshore?


It is high time we make manufacturing honorable again

No country can survive in a service based economy. If you do not have worker bees earning a decent salary, producing real products, there will no reason to buy services. Who needs an accountant if the bulk of the population if flipping burgers for minimum wage?

Who needs an engineer or lawyer if there is nothing to be made?

But Manufacturing is so dirty, why not let China do it?

I actually had this conversation with a friend who is an environmentally conscious therapist. The hypocrisy was a little thick for me.

There is no cleaner manufacturing than in the western industrialized countries and the US in particular. I guess her environmental conscious only extends to the border of her neighborhood. If the offshore countries destroy their environment it’s ok if as long as they put the word ‘green’ on their packaging.

This is not your grandfather’s machine shop

Machine shops have the reputation of being dangerous sweat shops. Often people on the outside see them as dark, dingy and noisy. And in some cases that may be true, in most cases it is not.

If you get a chance, Go visit a medium or large factory. Ask for a tour. I am willing to bet, the shop environment will amaze you.

Look at what it takes to make that mold for the cell phone you carry around, or the parts that go into your mechanical pen or blender. Imagine the thousands or parts that go into your automobile, bicycle, or computer.

Then, be very thankful that there are still a few of us that like to make stuff.

What is that sucking sound?

Coming in from the bight sun into the catacombs of the empty factory took a bit of adjustment.

Ron was uneasy.  The factory was about 500,000 square feet, dark and full of strange noises.

He could hear the wind whipping through the ceiling fans and that loud bangs of the damaged sections of the steel room.   Ron wished his flashlight was brighter.

As he was banging the flashlight to eek out a little more light, he heard an all too familiar sound that sent chills down his spine.

Ron’s situation is not unique.  He has found himself in ghost factory.  Not so many years ago this building was teeming with life and activity.  Machines were whirring, people were scurrying around, forklifts flying by

After Ron got used to the noise, the chilling sound did not bother him. After all it was just the sucking sound of manufacturing jobs leaving the area.

Since Ron was going to make a fortune turning this factory into a shopping mall, the sound was music to his ears.

Posted by: davidhayden | March 7, 2012

Most Common M Codes for Programming CNC Mills

This is the fourth post in a series about common G & M codes that started with the common G codes for CNC turning / CNC lathe work.

This Milling M Code information is excerpted from the 7 Easy Steps to CNC Programming series of books.  Books are available in hard copy and downloadable electronic versions.

Most Common M Codes for Programming CNC Mills

Code 

Group 

What it does / usage 

M0 / M00 

04 

Program  Stop.  Suspends program execution. 

M1 / M01 

04 

Optional Stop.  Only suspends program execution if the optional stop button on the machine’s operator panel is toggled to optional stop mode. 

M2 / M02 

04 

Program End.  Tells the control it is at the end of the program and resets all the modal commands to the machine. 

M3 / M03 

07 

Modal. Clockwise Spindle Rotation. Starts spindle rotation in a clockwise direction. 

M3 / M04 

07 

Modal. Counter-Clockwise Spindle Rotation. Starts spindle rotation in a counter-clockwise direction. 

M5 / M05 

07 

Spindle Stop.  Stops rotation of spindle. 

M8 / M08 

08 

Flood Coolant On. 

M9 / M09 

08 

Coolant Off. 

M30 

04 

Program End and Rewind.  This command tells the control it has reached the end of the program and resets the cursor to the first line of the program.  Back in the “old days” the M30 would cause the NC tape to rewind to the beginning. 

M98 

 

Sub-Program call. (See page 29) 

M99 

 

Return to Main Program. (See page 29) 

M99 

 

Loop program.  When used in a program that was not called as a subprogram, the M99 returns the cursor to the start of the program and continues execution.  This can be handy when running jobs with a bar feeder.  Instead of programming an M30, you can program the last two lines to read:
        M01;
        M99; 

The M01 will allow the operator to stop the program for taking breaks, shift change, changing bar stock, or whatever reason.  Until the Optional Stop switch is toggled on, the machine will keep looping through the program.  

Once the Optional Stop button is toggled on, the machine will stop just prior to reading the M99.  The operator can do what ever needs doing then hit the Cycle Start button and the program will resume operations from the beginning. 

These tables (3 previous posts) are excerpted from the 7 Easy Steps to CNC Programming series of books.

Posted by: davidhayden | March 3, 2012

Most Common G Codes for CNC Milling Applications

This is the thrid post in a series about common G & M codes that started with the common G codes for CNC turning / CNC lathe work.  

This Milling G Code information is excerpted from the 7 Easy Steps to CNC Programming series of books.      Books are available in hard copy and downloadable electronic versions.

Most Common CNC Milling G Codes

Code 

Group 

Parameters 

What it does / usage 

G0 / G00 

01 

 

Modal. Initiates rapid travel.  Causes the machine to move the tool to the programmed coordinate at the machines maximum speed. 

G1 / G01 

01 

Modal. Initiates linear feed.  Moves the tool in a straight line at the programmed feed rate as specified by F. 

G2 / G02 

01 

I, J, K,  R, F 

Modal. Initiates clockwise interpolation.  Moves the tool to a specified endpoint in a clockwise direction.  The parameters I, J, K and R define the size of the arc.

I, J, K define the center of the arc and are generally used together.  These parameters allow programming of arcs from 0-360 degrees

The R command is a shortcut for defining the arc radius and is never used on the same line with I, J, or K. The R command can be used to program arcs up to 360 degrees but not including 360 degrees. 

G3 / G03 

01 

I, J, K, R, F 

Modal. Initiates counterclockwise interpolation.  Moves the tool to a specified endpoint in a counterclockwise direction.  The parameters I, J, K and R define the size of the arc.

I, J, K define the center of the arc and are generally used together.  These parameters allow programming of arcs from 0-360 degrees.

The R command is a shortcut for defining the arc radius and is never used on the same line with I, J, or K. The R command can be used to program arcs up to 360 degrees but not including 360 degrees. 

G4 / G04 

00 

X, P 

Non-modal. Commands the machine to dwell or sit still for X seconds or P miliseconds.  For example G04 X3 would cause the machine to dwell for 3 seconds. 

To dwell for 3 seconds using the P parameter, the command would be G04 P3000 

 

G4 / G04 contd. 

00 

X, P 

This is useful for having the machine while coolant comes on or the spindle gets up to speed, etc. 

G17 

16 

 

Modal. Sets active plane to the X, Y plane. 

G18 

16 

 

Modal. Sets active plane to the X, Z plane (most common plane for turning). 

G19 

16 

 

Modal. Sets active plane to the Y, Z plane. 


G20 /
G94 

06 

 

Modal. Sets the machine to operate in inch mode. 

G21 / G95 

06 

 

Modal. Sets the machine to operate in metric mode 

G28 

00 

 

Non-Modal.  Commands the machine to move to the machine zero-reference point through an intermediate point. 

G40 

07 

 

Modal.  Cancels cuter compensation. 

G41 

07 

Modal. Cutter compensation left. This command tells the machine to move the cutter to the left of the programmed path by the amount specified in the offset identified by the D word. 

For example G41 X-3.000 D23 commands the machine to move to X-3 but to keep the tool to the left of the programmed path by amount in offset register 23. 

Left and Right are determined by looking down the tool path from start point to end point.  As you imagine looking down that path, the compensation will be to the left. 

G42 

07 

Modal. Cutter compensation Right. This command tells the machine to move the cutter to the right of the programmed path by the amount specified in the offset identified by the D word.

For example G41 X-3.000 D23 commands the machine to move to X-3 but to keep the tool to the right of the programmed path by amount in offset register 23.   

Left and Right are determined by looking down the tool path from start point to end point.  As you imagine looking down that path, the compensation will be to the right. 

G50 

00 

X, Y, Z 

Modal. Used to program the absolute zero.   

The X and Z would be programmed as the distance and direction from the desired absolute zero point to the current tool position. 

G70 

00 

 

Modal.  The ANSI/EIA RS-274-D standard command for inch programming. 

G73 

01 

X, Y, Z, R,
F, Q 

Modal. High Speed Chip Breaking.  This canned cycle: 

* moves to the programmed X, Y location
* rapids to a clearance point as specified by
   R,

* feeds to the depth of Q at the F feed rate
* retracts the tool just enough to break the
   chip

* feeds another Q distance and breaks the
   chip

* repeats the feed / chip-breaking cycle until
   the 
  final Z depth is reached.
* retracts the tool based on G98 / G99 Mode
* rapids to the next X, Y location and
   repeats the 
cycle. 

G74 

01 

X, Y, Z, F, R 

Modal. Left Hand Tapping.  This canned cycle:  

 * Starts the spindle in counter-clockwise
   rotation

* moves to the programmed X, Y location
* rapids to a clearance point as specified by
   R,

* feeds to the Z depth at the F feed rate
* reverses the spindle direction
* feeds the tool out of the hole based on the
   G98 / G99 Mode
* rapids to the next X, Y location and
   repeats the 
  cycle. 

G76 

01 

X, Y, Z, F, R 

Modal. Fine Boring.  This canned cycle:  

* moves to the programmed X, Y location
* rapids to a clearance point as specified
   by R,

* feeds to the Z depth at the F feed rate
* stops and orients spindle so tip is away
   from the 
stock
* rapids the tool out of the hole based on the
   G98 / G99 Mode
* rapids to the next X, Y location and repeats
   the 
cycle. 

G80 

01 

 

Cancels Canned Cycles. 

G81 

01 

X, Y, Z, R, F 

Modal. Drill.  This canned cycle: 

* moves to the programmed X, Y location
* rapids to a clearance point as specified by
   R,

* feeds to the Z depth at the F feed rate
* retracts the tool based on G98 / G99 Mode
* rapids to the next X, Y location and repeats
   the 
 cycle. 

G82 

01 

X, Y, Z, F,
P, R 

Modal. Counter-Boring  This canned cycle:  

* moves to the programmed X, Y location
* rapids to a clearance point as specified by
   R,

* feeds to the Z depth at the F feed rate
* dwells at the bottom of the hole for the
   amount 
 of milliseconds as specified by the
   P parameter

* retracts the tool based on G98 / G99 Mode
* rapids to the next X, Y location and repeats
   the 
cycle.   

G83 

01 

X, Y, Z,  F, R, Q 

Modal. Full Retract Peck Drilling.  This canned cycle works the same way as G73 except this command causes the tool to retract all the way out of the hole instead of just enough to break the chip. 

G84 

01 

X, Y, Z, F, R 

Modal. Right Hand Tapping.  This canned cycle: 

* moves to the programmed X, Y location
* rapids to a clearance point as specified by
   R,

* feeds to the Z depth at the F feed rate
* reverses the spindle direction
* feeds the tool out of the hole based on the
  G98 / G99 Mode
* rapids to the next X, Y location and
   repeats the
 cycle. 

G85 

01 

X, Y, Z, 

F, R 

Modal. Boring.  This canned cycle: 

* moves to the programmed X, Y location
* rapids to a clearance point as specified by
   R,

* feeds to the Z depth at the F feed rate
* feeds the tool out of the hole based on the
  G98 / G99 Mode
* rapids to the next X, Y location and repeats
   the 
cycle. 

G86 

01 

X, Y, Z, F, R 

Modal. Boring This canned cycle: 

* moves to the programmed X, Y location
* rapids to a clearance point as specified by
   R,

* feeds to the Z depth at the F feed rate
* stops the spindle
* rapids the tool out of the hole based on the
  G98 / G99 Mode
* rapids to the next X, Y location and repeats
   the
 cycle. 

G90 

03 

 

Modal. The ANSI/EIA RS-274-D standard command for absolute programming.    

G91 

03 

 

Modal. The ANSI/EIA RS-274-D standard command for incremental programming.    

G98 

10 

 

Modal.   Return to Initial level.  
This command tells the control to return the tool to the Z level where the canned cycle was first initiated.  For example if you program the tool to rapid .100 above the part then call the canned cycle, the initial level is .100 above the surface. 

G99 

10 

 

Modal. Return to R Level.  

In the canned cycle command when you program an R parameter you tell the machine to rapid from the initial level to the R level before starting the canned cycle.
The G99 tells the control, when it is finished with the canned cycle to rapid to the R level instead of the Initial level.  

This can be handy when you drill holes down in a pocket and then you want to retract the tool and Rapid to a level above the part but not out to the initial level between holes.  By programming the G99 with a Z level you can keep the tool close to the work piece.

Remember though, on the last hole, you should add the G98 to force the cycle to return to the initial level.  This may keep the tool from crashing into the part as it rapids home or to a new location. 

 

Watch for upcoming post on the most common M Codes used in CNC Milling applications.  These tables are excerpted from the 7 Easy Steps to CNC Programming series of books.

Posted by: davidhayden | March 1, 2012

Most Common Turning M Codes for CNC Programming

Most Common Turning M Codes 

The following is a list of Comming CNC Programming M Codes for turning applications.  These are excerpts from 7 Easy Steps to CNC Programming Book II, Beyond the Beginning.

For the list of CNC Programming G codes for turning applications see previous post.

CNC
M Code 

CNC M Code Group 

What CNC M Code does /
How to Use the CNC M Code

M0 / M00 

04 

Program  Stop.  Suspends program execution. 

M1 / M01 

04 

Optional Stop.  Only suspends program execution if the optional stop button on the machine’s operator panel is toggled to optional stop mode. 

M2 / M02 

04 

Program End.  Tells the control it is at the end of the program and resets all the modal commands to the machine. 

M3 / M03 

07 

Modal. Clockwise Spindle Rotation. Starts spindle rotation in a clockwise direction. 

M3 / M04 

07 

Modal. Counter-Clockwise Spindle Rotation. Starts spindle rotation in a counter-clockwise direction. 

M5 / M05 

07 

Spindle Stop.  Stops rotation of spindle. 

M8 / M08 

08 

Flood Coolant On. 

M9 / M09 

08 

Coolant Off. 

M10 

02 

Clamp Chuck. 

M11 

02 

Chuck Un-Clamp. 

M30 

04 

Program End and Rewind.  This command tells the control it has reached the end of the program and resets the cursor to the first line of the program.  Back in the “old days,” the M30 would cause the NC tape to rewind back to the beginning. 

M98 

 

Sub-Program call. (See page 29) 

M99 

 

Return to Main Program. (See page 29) 

M99 

 

Loop program.  When used in a program that was not called as a subprogram, the M99 returns the cursor to the start of the program and continues execution.  This can be handy when running jobs with a bar feeder.  Instead of programming an M30, you can program the last two lines to read:  
            M01;  
            M99; 
The M01 will allow the operator to stop the program for taking breaks, shift change, changing bar stock, or whatever reason.  Until the Optional Stop switch is toggled ON, the machine will keep looping through the program.  

Once the Optional Stop button is toggled ON, the machine will stop just prior to reading the M99.  The operator can do what ever needs doing, then hit the Cycle Start button. The program will resume operations from the beginning. 

Watch for future posts that will feature G and M code lists excerpted from 7 Easy Steps to Cnc Programming . . . Beyond the Beginning

Posted by: davidhayden | February 28, 2012

Table of Common Turning G Codes for CNC Programming

Notes about G codes for CNC Programming.  

The following is taken from 7 Easy Steps to CNC Programming Book II, Beyond the Beginning.

There are two types of G codes, modal and non-modal.  Modal G codes remain in effect until canceled or changed by another G code.  For example G0 / G00, which initiates rapid travel, is modal.  So once programmed, the machine will remain in rapid travel mode until a G1 / G01, G2 / G02, G3 / G03 is commanded.  By contrast, G4 / G04, which causes the machine to dwell for a specified time is non-modal.  When a G4 / G04 is commanded, the machine suspends machine motions code, dwells for the programmed time, then returns to normal movements.
  
There is some degree of variation in the use of G and M codes.  The 1980 ANSI/EIA standard RS-274-D left several ranges of G and M codes unassigned.  These unassigned codes give machine tool builders more flexibility to build custom features into their machines and controls.
G codes belong to several groups.  Early NC controls did not allow combining G codes on the same line of a program.  More recent CNC controls do allow combining G codes on the same line providing the G codes are from different groups.  
  
If two G codes from the same group are put on the same line, the machine will only act on the last G code of the group.  For example, if a line read G01 X0 Y0 F3.0 G00, the control would tell the machine to rapid travel to point X0, Y0 rather than feed to the point at the programmed F3.0 feed rate.
  
The parameter column in the following table shows the required / necessary codes that may be needed to complete the command.

The following pages provide a list of the common turning G codes.

Most Common Turning G Codes

G Code 

G Code Group 

G Code Parameters 

What the G CODE does / How to Use the G Code 

G0 / G00 

01 

 

Modal. Initiates rapid travel.  Causes the machine to move the tool to the programmed coordinate at the machines maximum speed. 

G1 / G01 

01 

Modal. Initiates linear feed.  Moves the tool in a straight line at the programmed feed rate as specified by F. 

G2 / G02 

01 

I, K, R, 

Modal. Initiates clockwise interpolation.  Moves the tool to a specified endpoint in a clockwise direction.  The parameters I, J ,K and R define the size of the arc.

I, J ,K define the center of the arc and are generally used together.  These parameters allow programming of arcs from 0-360 degrees.

The R command is a shortcut for defining the arc radius and is never used on the same line with I, J, or K. The R command can be used to program arcs up to 360 degrees but not including 360 degrees. 

G3 / G03 

01 

I, K, R,

Modal. Initiates counterclockwise interpolation.  Moves the tool to a specified endpoint in a counterclockwise direction.  The parameters I, J ,K and R define the size of the arc.

I, J ,K define the center of the arc and are generally used together.  These parameters allow programming of arcs from 0-360 degrees.

The R command is a shortcut for defining the arc radius and is never used on the same line with I, J, or K. The R command can be used to program arcs up to 360 degrees but not including 360 degrees. 

G4 / G04 

00 

X, P 

Non-modal. Commands the machine to dwell or sit still for X seconds or P miliseconds.  For example G04 X3 would cause the machine to dwell for 3 seconds. 
 
To dwell for 3 seconds using the P parameter, the command would be G04 P3000 

This is useful for having the machine sit idle while coolant comes on or the spindle gets up to speed, etc. 

G17 

16 

 

Modal. Sets active plane to the X, Y plane. 

G18 

16 

 

Modal. Sets active plane to the X, Z plane (most common plane for turning). 

G19 

16 

 

Modal. Sets active plane to the Y, Z plane 

G20 / G94 

06 

 

Modal. Sets the machine to operate in inch mode. 

G21 / G95 

06 

 

Modal. Sets the machine to operate in metric mode. 

G28 

00 

 

Non-Modal.  Commands the machine to move to the machine zero-reference point through an intermediate point. 

G32 / G33 

01 

Modal.  Single pass Threading. This command causes the machine to make one threading pass that ends at the X, Z coordinates specified in the G33 line.  The F or feed rate parameter controls the pitch of the thread. 

For older machines that cannot feed in inches per revolution you need to calculate the feed rate using the following formula  1/TPI x RPM.   

For example, the feed rate for a 12 pitch thread at 100 RPM would be 1/12 x 100 or 8.3333.  The F command on a machine with decimal point programming would be F8.333. 

G40 

07 

 

Modal.  Cancels cuter compensation. 

G41 

07 

Modal. Cutter compensation left. This command tells the machine to move the cutter to the left of the programmed path by the amount specified in the offset identified by the D word. 

For example G41 X-3.000 D23 commands the machine to move to X-3 but to keep the tool to the left of the programmed path by amount in offset register 23. 

Left and Right are determined by looking down the tool path from start point to end point.  As you imagine looking down that path, the compensation will be to the left. 

G42 

07 

Modal. Cutter compensation Right. This command tells the machine to move the cutter to the right of the programmed path by the amount specified in the offset identified by the D word.

  For example G41 X-3.000 D23 commands the machine to move to X-3 but to keep the tool to the right of the programmed path by amount in offset register 23. 

Left and Right are determined by looking down the tool path from start point to end point.  As you imagine looking down that path, the compensation will be to the right. 

G50 / G92 

00 

X, Z, 

Modal. Used to program the absolute zero. Additionally the G50 is used to establish the maximum spindle speed when using Constant Surface Speed spindle control.  On some machines these functions are handled by the G92 command. 

The X and Z would be programmed as the distance and direction from the desired absolute zero point to the current tool position.  The S would be programmed as direct RPM in a manner similar to this: G50 S350  The example command would insure the spindle speed never exceeded 350 RPM. 

G70 

00 

 

Modal.  The ANSI/EIA RS-274-D standard command for inch programming. 

G70 

00 

P, Q 

Non-Modal. Finishing Cycle. This is a different use of the G70 command. On the controls that use this version of G70, this command is used in conjunction with a G71, G72 or G73 command.

The part is first roughed with a G71, G72 or G73 command. Once the roughing cycle is completed, the G70 is used to perform the finish pass. 
 
P specifies the starting block of the roughing cycle. Q specifies the ending block of the roughing cycle.
 
For example suppose you roughed a part with one of the roughing cycles starting at line N100 and ending at line N125, the G70 command would look like: 

G70 P100 Q125; 

G71 

00 

 

Modal.  The ANSI/EIA RS-274-D standard command for metric programming. 

G71 

00 

P, Q, R, U, W 

Non-Modal Turning stock removal.  This command simplifies roughing by allowing you to describe the finish turn in a series of commands and defining how much stock is to be removed. This is a linear roughing command that removes stock off the diameter by cutting parallel to the center line of the part. 

The command takes 2 lines. The first line defines the depth of cut to take per pass and the amount to retract the tool for clearance. 

The second line of the command defines:

* the starting block of the finish pass (P),
* the ending block of the finish pass (Q),
* the direction and amount of stock to leave on
  the X axis (U)
* the direction and amount of stock to leave on
  the Z axis (W)

A typical G71 command set might look like: 

G71 U.125 R.03; 

G71 P100 Q125 U.015 W.015; 

This command would tell the control to look ahead to blocks 100-125, rough turn at .125 per pass, retract the tool by .031, and leave .015 stock on the X and Z axis for finishing. 

G72 

00 

P, Q, R, U, W 

Non-Modal Facing stock removal.  This command simplifies roughing by allowing you to describe the finish part in a series of commands and defining how much stock is to be removed.  This is a linear roughing command that removes stock off the faces by cutting perpendicular to the center line of the part.

The command and parameters are used as described in the G71 command.  The notable exception is that the first G72 line is a W and an R because the depth of cut is along the face rather than the diameter. 

G73 

00 

D, I, K, P,
Q, U, 

Non-Modal Contour roughing / pattern repeating.  This cycle is similar to the previous G71 and G72 in that it removes stock based on the finish profile as defined by the P and Q parameters.  The command is different in that it removes the stock in cuts parallel to the finish pass rather than in straight lines. 

G73
contd. 

00 

D, I, K, 
P, Q, U, 

The P, Q, U and W parameters are the same as described above.  D specifies depth of cut per side, I specifies total displacement along the X axis, and K specifies total displacement along the Z axis.

A typical G73 command might look like: 

G73 P185 Q205 U.015 W.015 I.3 K.25 D.1; 

G90 

03 

 

Modal. The ANSI/EIA RS-274-D standard command for absolute programming.  

On some controls, the use of X and Z coordinate commands implies absolute programming and the use of U and W coordinate commands implies incremental programming. 

G91 

03 

 

Modal. The ANSI/EIA RS-274-D standard command for incremental programming. 

On some controls, the use of U and W coordinate commands implies incremental programming and the use of X and Z coordinate commands implies absolute programming. 

G96 

02 

S, U, X 

Modal. Constant Surface speed control.  As you know when turning a piece on lathe, as you face to the center, the surface speed of the cutting drops. 

The G96 command insures that the cutting surface speed (CSS) remains constant as set by the parameter S.  For example, an S350 parameter setting on the G96 command line tells the machine to keep the machine cutting at a constant 350 surface feet per minute. 

The other important parameters to include are the U or X.  For the machine to calculate the proper spindle speed to maintain the programmed CSS, you must tell the machine the current tool location with respect to the centerline of the part. 

A couple of notes about G96 programming: 

Clearly, as the tool moves closer to the center of the part you reach a theoretical infinite spindle speed.  Programming CSS will not enable the machine to reach a spindle speed greater than the machine’s limitations. 

G96
contd. 

02 

S, U, X 

Depending on the rigidity of your set up, the condition of your machine or any safety considerations, you may not want the spindle speed to exceed a particular RPM.  On a separate line, you can program a maximum allowable RPM while in CSS mode.  Depending on your machine control, the command to control the maximum RPM will either be a G50 or a G92.  

For example, if you program a G50 S200.  The spindle speed would never exceed 200 RPM while in G96 mode, even if towards the center of the part, the surface speed drops below the programmed CSS. 

Another point to remember. If you are programming a roughing cycle and the tool is quickly and frequently moving from a cutting diameter to a clearance diameter, the spindle RPM will rise and fall with each move.  This is not good for the machine.  So, in a situation like this, it is best to program a G97 on the retract, then reprogram the G96 on the block prior to engaging the part. 

G97 

02 

 

Modal. CSS cancel.  Returns the machine to direct RPM spindle speed programming. 

G98 

10 

 

Modal. Instructs the control to interpret the feed rate commands in inches/mm per minute. 

G99 

10 

 

Modal. Instructs the control to interpret the feed rate commands in inches/mm per revolution. 

Look to future posts that will list some Common Milling G Codes for CNC Programming excerpted from 7 Easy Steps to CNC Programming . . . A Beginner’s Guide.

Posted by: davidhayden | February 8, 2012

How to Determine SFM for an Operation

 Henry wrote and asked a good question:

 “How do you determine the correct SFM for machining a part?”

Good question Henery. Choosing the correct SFM really depends a number of things.

  1. Machinability of the material (see http://www.carbidedepot.com/formulas-machinability.htm )
  2. The tool material (carbide, High Speed Steel, Ceramic, etc)
  3. The rigidity of the set up

And so on.

Once you know the material characteristics and tool material you can go to machinery’s handabook or similar texts and look up speeds and feeds for optimum conditions for various operations like drilling, milling, threading, turning and so on.

Another great source of information for speeds and feeds is provided by the carbide manufacturers like Kennametal, Valenite (now Walter),  Seco Tools and Iscar, to name a few.   These companies have catalogs and websites containing a wealth of information about speeds and feeds for their cutting tools.   And, if you are a customer they generally have application engineers available to assist you.

All machining conditions are different, so basically you start with the redommended Speeds and Feeds (assuming you have adequate rigidity for safe maching) and tweak the process from there depending on your needs for productivity, tool life, repeatability, machine capability etc.

Great question Henry, thanks for asking.  I hope this information helps you.

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